By Coach Steve
With so many tri-bike options available it can be a challenge to
make an informed decision about which one to buy. There are steel,
aluminum, and composite frames, traditional designs and beam bikes,
shallow to steep seat tube angles, even effective seat tube
angles for bikes that don't have a seat tube! Picking the right
bike can be as tough as choosing an energy bar�or a coach! I'll
try to help by explaining some of the variables in bike positioning,
specifically how your seat positioning affects your comfort, efficiency,
and most important, performance.
The seat tube angle of your bike's frame is a critical factor for
positioning and performance. It's important because the angle determines
your positioning relative to the bike's bottom bracket (the area
that contains the bearings that your cranks rotate on). This positioning
profoundly influences the dynamic of your muscle movement while
pedaling. When you switch to a frame with a different seat tube
angle, a change of only 3 degrees is analogous to completely changing
your swim stroke or your run's stride; it will take time to adapt
to, and can have either a positive, or a negative influence on your
Production bike frames available offer a range from 73 degrees
for a traditional 'road bike,' to 78 degrees for a full-blown 'tri-bike.'
This range can make a difference in seat position of as much as
3 inches forward or back (depending on your leg length) relative
to the bike's bottom bracket.
So what effect does your positioning in relation to the bike's
bottom bracket have on your pedal stroke and power? Seat tube angles
that are shallow (73 to 74 degrees) place you further behind the
bottom bracket and favor quadriceps strength over hamstring strength.
They benefit athletes who've spent significant time 'in the
saddle' (bike racers) getting their bodies used to flexibility and
power demands on their quads and lower back. The shallow seat tube
angles also create a better position for climbing—power at
lower cadences. Steep seat tube angles (75.5 to 78 degrees) put
you further forward and benefit athletes who have well-developed
hamstring muscles (runners). Hamstring muscles along with our gluteus
(butt muscles) are the dominant muscles driving us forward when
we run. When you watch an experienced cyclist at speed notice they
often move forward at high effort/cadence on the flats. Because
of that steep seat tubes are more appropriate for flat courses.
The steeper seat tube angles also open up (increase) the angle between
our torso and legs as we maintain our optimal aerodynamic position.
We're able to rotate our hips forward making less of a bend through
our lower backs, thus reducing the stress and fatigue to that area.
A steep seat tube angle (forward position) simulates the motion
of running progressively more the further forward we place our seat.
A forward position can ease the transition between bike and run,
which is especially helpful in sprint distance events. But there's
a downside to moving forward, a point of diminishing returns if
The quadriceps is our strongest muscle, and it can store much energy
in the form of glycogen (carbohydrate in storage form). Our quads
apply force during the down stroke of the pedaling motion—working
with gravity through our body weight. The hamstring muscle group
has less power potential, and in addition must work against gravity
while pulling back and up to generate power. Favoring hamstring
powered pedaling tends to deplete and fatigue the same muscles during
both the bike and run, so we may be able to get away with this in
short events, but it will probably catch up with us to some degree
during longer events.
Another consideration is variation of power requirements on different
parts of a race course. While riding fast on flats, it's natural
to slide forward on the saddle as we increase our momentum with
greater leg speed (cadence). As we climb a hill or fight headwinds,
our cadence slows and power becomes critical. This is when we need
to slide back on the saddle to develop more torque. Riders with
ultra-steep 78-degree seat tube angles often complain that they
can't climb comfortably, especially when out-of-the-saddle. Clearly
both "forward" and "traditional" shallow seat tube angles have merit
and and every frame is a compromise.
I favor a seat tube angle of 75 to 76 degrees and feel it gives
me a balance between top-end speed on the flats and power on climbs.
In general this is the position used by bike racers for their time
trial bikes, and triathlon is nothing but one long time trial unless
you race junior or pro ITU draft legal races. Taller riders can
move back one-half to one-degree and smaller riders should move
forward proportionally. This seat tube angle adjustment accommodates
body size and femur (thighbone) lengths. Most frame manufacturers
do adjust seat angles for height on their stock frame sizes.
You may be saying to yourself, "I haven't seen many frames with
75-76 degree seat tubes," and you're correct. There are two ways
to compensate for a seat tube angle that you feel isn't optimal.
The first adjustment option is at the clamping area of your seat
post to saddle rails. The clamp that holds the seat's rails allows
a range of about one-and-a-half to two inches of forward or backward
adjustment. The second option is a special post that's curved or
'bent.' Either of these options can effectively shift you to the
position you want with a variety of seat tube angles. Of course
moving your seat forward or back also affects the distance to your
handlebars and aero bars, but discussing that would go beyond the
scope of this article. Suffice to say, keep all of your bike's proportions
(especially top tube length) in mind when purchasing a new frame
or making changes to your current bike.
The majority of multisport athletes seem to be moving away from
the radical forward positions of 5 to 10 years ago. I encourage
experimentation in the off-season to determine what works best for
you. In setting a new seat position keep this in mind: You will
perform most efficiently with the positioning your body has adapted
to over time. Changes force your body into a new adaptive 'learning
curve' and will not be advantageous in the short-term unless your
position was very inefficient prior to the change.